Animals - Introduced Species
All the countries that signed the Convention on Biodiversity are obliged, in accordance with Article 8 (h) of the latter, to conduct monitoring of intentional and unintentional introduction of alien organisms (introduced species). In Russia, the reintroduction into nature of species that became extinct in individual regions for various reasons is considered as one of the methods of conservation and restoration of biological diversity. There are many examples of the positive realization of reintroduction (formation of the new populations of musk oxen, restoration of sable and European bison (wisent) populations, moving of the European beaver and bobak marmot back to their traditional habitats). The negative consequences for biodiversity of Russia were caused by large-scale experiments for introduction of animals and plants in 30-50s of the last century under the slogan of "enrichment" of the country's flora and fauna. Ecological and genetical effects of unintentional introduction are even less predictable than those of reintroduction and intentional introduction. Among the examples of disastrous environmental effects, first of all, for the agriculture and forest management of Russia are invasions of introduced species. For instance, during 35 years of its functioning the Quarantine Service of the former USSR had revealed more than 1000 species of various insects (mostly pests), about 600 types of microorganisms - potential pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi) and more than 400 types of weed seeds as a result of examination of about 1 mln pieces of imported cargo containing plants. At present only flora of vascular plants of individual regions in central Russia may for 10-20% consist of introduced species.
Under the GEF Project for Conservation of Biodiversity the experts V.Yu.Maslyakov (Quarantine Institute of the Russian Ministry of Agriculture) and O.V.Morozova (Institute of geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences) developed the database of introduced species - for plants (1119 entries) and for animals (3250 entries). The brief instructions for methods of work with the database are the following:
In the upper part of the screen you can see query window, into which you will enter your conditions for selecting information from the database, in the bottom part of the screen there is an information window, where the results of the search according the selected criteria will appear.
The upper query window is divided into three sections. The first section is an informational one, it contains the name of the database with which you are currently working. In this section you can also at any time read the instructions or to finish the work moving back to the home page. The second section contains conditions for the search of information. There are several windows in it where you can type the keywords according to your interest, and on the basis of which information will be retrieved from the database. The third section presents the selection of fields, which will appear on the screen after selection from the database is finished.
Query definition is performed by entering one or more keywords in relevant windows. When you enter two words into the same window they must be separated by a space. It is better to enter not a full word but only its root, by doing so you will increase the probability of finding the information you are looking for. If there are several key words (in one or several windows) then the records, in which the words are used simultaneously will be shown. If no keywords are entered then all the records contained in the database will appear.
The management of found data output is conducted in the third section containing the menu with the list of all the database fields. After completion of the search only fields selected by you from the menu will be shown on screen. Selection of several fields is possible if you use the mouse simultaneously with pressed Ctrl button. If nothing is selected from the menu then all the fields will be shown.
If the number of found entries is too big, they will be shown not as a long list, but page-by-page, where each page will contain 20 entries. In the bottom part of the screen the search results bar is placed, with the help of which you can move to the next or previous entry and also to the beginning or end of the list. Good luck!